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GEL1010 Ch 6,13,14 Soil & Water

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

What mineral particles are the dominant coloring agents in reddish, brownish, and yellowish soils?
a.
dust-sized grains of iron oxides
b.
soluble potassium and sodium bicarbonates
c.
very fine-sized, silica and calcite particles
d.
humus and calcium carbonate
 

 2. 

In the Rocky Mountain region of the United States, north-facing slopes (downhill direction is toward the north) are typically more moist and heavily forested than south-facing slopes. Why?
a.
North-facing slopes receive more sunlight in the summer; snow melts faster and more soil moisture is available for the trees.
b.
South-facing slopes receive less moisture, yet rock weathering is faster.
c.
South-facing slopes receive more moisture and sunlight; rock weathering is slower.
d.
North-facing slopes receive about the same amount of precipitation as south-facing slopes; less moisture evaporates from north-facing slopes.
 

 3. 

Which one of the following statements is correct?
a.
Sea level drops when water is stored in expanding ice sheets and continental glaciers.
b.
Sea level rises when water is stored in expanding ice sheets and continental glaciers.
c.
Sea level rises when water is added to the oceans through increased rainfall and increased inflow from rivers.
d.
Sea level drops when evaporation rates increase over the oceans and when this extra, atmospheric moisture falls on land as rain.
 

 4. 

What is the drop in water surface elevation divided by the distance the water flows?
a.
hydraulic capacity
c.
stream discharge
b.
hydrologic resistance
d.
stream gradient
 

 5. 

Which of the following must result in a lower base level for rivers and streams?
a.
Sea level rises; land rises.
c.
Sea level falls; land subsides.
b.
Sea level rises; land subsides.
d.
Sea level falls; land rises.
 

 6. 

Which of the following is the correct definition of stream gradient?
a.
the drop in elevation of a stream divided by the distance the water travels
b.
the increase in discharge of a stream per unit drop in elevation
c.
the water pressure at the bottom of the stream divided by the stream's width
d.
the distance traveled by water in a channel times a drop in elevation
 

 7. 

Where is erosion concentrated along a meandering stream?
a.
on the outer parts of the meander loops or bends
b.
at the unconsolidated point bars
c.
on the straight channel segments that connect the meander loops
d.
on the inner banks of the meander loops
 

 8. 

________ account(s) for the largest usage of groundwater in the United States.
a.
Industrial uses
c.
Domestic and municipal supplies
b.
Agriculture and irrigation
d.
Water for livestock and poultry
 

 9. 

What force pushes groundwater from pore to pore below the water table?
a.
pressure gradient or hydraulic gradient
c.
integrated saturation impulse
b.
permeability steepness
d.
seepage affluence actor
 

 10. 

What is the relationship between drawdown and the cone of depression associated with a pumping well?
a.
There is no relationship between drawdown and the cone of depression.
b.
Drawdown is the distance between the original water table and the water level in the well.
c.
The drawdown is the percentage of available water in the aquifer that has already been used.
d.
The drawdown is the diameter of the cone of depression measured at the elevation of the original water table.
 

One Word Completion / One Word Answer
Complete or answer each statement by typing only one word. Answer numbers as text..
 

 11. 

Half Dome in Yosemite National Park, California, and Stone Mountain in Georgia, are shaped mainly by what mechanical weathering process?
 

 

 12. 

What is the most abundant, naturally produced, weak acid involved in chemical weathering and soil formation?
 

 

 13. 

The very fine-sized, clay mineral particles move downward from the A to the B horizon of some soils. What is this process called?
 

 

 14. 

What term refers to removal of soluble constituents from soils?
 

 

 15. 

________ is the total quantity of sediment carried by a river.
 

 



 
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